The official name of Mexico is Estados Unidos Mexicanos or United Mexican States.

Mexico is a Federal Republic. It has 31 states and one Federal District. Mexico City is located at the Federal District; it is the national capital and seat of the Federal powers.

The head of the Federal Executive branch is the President. The President serves for six years terms and may not be reelected.

The Federal Legislative branch is divided in two chambers: The Upper House or Senate, with 128 members; and the Lower House or Chamber of Representatives, with 500 members.

The head of the Federal Judicial branch is the Supreme Court, with 11 members. There are several Federal Courts of Appeals and District Courts scattered through the country.

Each state has a governor, a legislature and state courts. The number of judges and representatives in the state legislatures vary from state to state. The Major of the Federal District is elected by popular vote; the Major and the legislature of the Federal District have limited powers compared to a state governor or a state legislature; there is also a local courts system. Statehood of the Federal District is a continuous debate.

Mexico’s area is 1,964,375 sq. km. (about 758,446 sq. mi.).

The official language is Spanish; Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. The estimated population in 2010 was 112,336,538. The total growth rate in 2010 was 1.40%. The urban population is 76.5%, while rural population is 23.5%.

The estimated indian population in 2010 was 6,695,228, but figures may vary depending on the definition of indian. There are 64 indian ethnic groups that speak 62 different languages. 15.2% of the indian population did not speak Spanish in 2010.

Mexico’s currency is the Mexican Peso.

Mexico’s estimated GDP in 2012 (PPP method) was $1,761 trillion USD. The estimated GDP per capita (PPP method) in 2012 was $15,300 USD. The United States of America is Mexico’s main trading partner; about 80 percent of Mexico’s exports are bound to the U.S.A.

U.S. based companies are also the main foreign investors in Mexico, followed by companies from The Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Japan and Switzerland. French and South Korean companies also have a significant presence.

Mexico has entered into free trade agreements with the following countries or entities: U.S.A and Canada (North America Free Trade Agreement); Colombia; Costa Rica; Bolivia; Nicaragua; Chile; Israel; European Community; El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras; Uruguay; Japan; Peru. There are also special bilateral trade agreements with Iceland, Norway, Lichtenstein and Switzerland.

Mexico is a civil law country. The Federal Constitution dates from 1917, although it has been amended hundreds of times.

Virtually all statutes and regulations that govern and protect Intellectual Property in Mexico are federal. The main exception is image rights; the Federal District has a special statute about image rights, besides the federal regulation. The statutes governing civil contracts and obligations are mainly state laws.

Mexico is a party of the most important international treaties concerning Intellectual Property: The Paris Convention, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), the Berne Convention, the Brussels Convention, the Union for the Protection of Vegetal Varieties Convention (UPOV), the Phonograms Convention, the WIPO Copyright Treaty, the WIPO Performances and Phonographs Treaty and the Universal Copyright Convention.

Mexico is also a party of the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), the Madrid Protocol, the Budapest Treaty, the Lisbon Agreement, the Nice Agreement, the Vienna Agreement, the Strasburg Agreement and the Locarno Agreement.

The official name of the Mexican Patent and Trademark Office (MPTO) is Instituto Mexicano de la Propiedad Industrial or Mexican Institute of Industrial Property.
The official name of the Mexican Copyright Office (MCO) is Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor or National Copyright Institute.

Data Sources:
Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (www.inegi.gob.mx)
The World Factbook, website of the Central Intelligence Agency (www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html)

El Almanaque Mexicano 2008, by Sergio Aguayo.


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